Behind the Wheel and Inside the Mind: Understanding the Psychological Dynamics of Road Safety
Dr. Abhijeet Dhere
Dr. Vishwanath Karad MIT World Peace University, India
Road safety is a critical global concern, with millions of lives at stake every year due to traffic accidents. While significant efforts have been directed toward improving road infrastructure and implementing traffic regulations, understanding the psychological dynamics of road users still needs to be explored in road safety research. This paper addresses this gap by investigating the intricate relationship between psychological factors and road safety efforts. The study employs a mixed-methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods to comprehensively analyze the role of psychological variables in shaping road user behavior and attitudes toward road safety. Qualitative methods include in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with a diverse sample of road users, including drivers, pedestrians, and cyclists. These qualitative data provide insights into the perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs influencing road user behavior. The themes emerging from these qualitative findings will inform the quantitative survey design. The quantitative component of the study involves a large-scale survey administered to a representative sample of road users from various demographics. The survey instruments will measure psychological variables, including risk perception, attitudes toward road safety measures, personality traits, and cognitive factors. These variables will be analyzed using statistical techniques such as regression analysis and structural equation modeling to identify significant predictors of road user behavior and compliance with safety regulations.
This study aims to provide a holistic understanding of how psychological factors interact with road safety efforts by combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. The findings are expected to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that drive road user behavior and provide valuable insights for developing more effective road safety interventions and campaigns. Ultimately, this research contributes to the broader goal of reducing road accidents and improving road safety for all.
Keywords: road safety, psychological factors, Safe System Approach, behavioral interventions, road user behavior
The Future of Online Language Education For the World (On the Example of Ukraine)
The world is changing as quickly as never before, and it has become obvious that the standards and expectations from language education are changing too. The pandemic of COVID-19 has shown that it is possible to learn a language online, and the war is continues to prove that studying online is not only possible – sometimes it is the only way to continue education. Not only does online education benefit students’ progress in language acquisition but it also has a great positive impact on both students’ and teachers’ mental health. Continuing to study online in a new environment creates a feeling of stability in a student and helps reduce stress. However, there are a lot of issues connected to online language education, which need close attention.
In this research we have looked into positive and negative aspects of the present day realia of online language education as well as the issues that are still to be dealt with.
Keywords: Language education, online education, mental well-being, continuous education
The Changing Impact of Women Empowerment for Inclusive Development (A Case Study of Baluchistan’s districts)
Rahim Khetran, Sadia Rana
This paper reviews Women empowerment-inclusive development nexus, by focusing micro communities of Balochistan. This study also identified the social and economic reasons, behind low self-esteem of women within and outside their communities. Basic rights and access towards education are now community led development initiative at macro, meso and micro levels, where Government of Pakistan and donors under CPEC projects are investing in the province.
In development planning the role of minorities were not considered and actions was not taken upto district level, where ideas and their potentials for inclusive development for the provision of basic services has major share in unfulfilled desire. This inappropriate implications of policies may also cause dearth of sustainable use of human resources where women play major part in domestic production. Whereas Public policy development programs over the province having inclusive development plans that is missing due to over centralization of power.
The data collection exercise started from district, by using qualitative and quantitative tools of data collection. Conceptual framework is having its importance to identify the major aspects including women’s empowerment, inclusive development and social mobilisation.
Study findings for sustainable Poverty reduction and women empowerment must reflect in
inclusion as main pilar of policy recommendations alongside Education, literacy and social mobilization.
Keywords: women empowerment, inclusive development, micro communities
The Role of Cities in Creation of Life Sciences Sector Companies
Piotr Raźniak, Anna Winiarczyk-Raźniak
Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Krakow, Poland
Global corporations have a great influence on the city’s position in a globalized world. Cities play an important role in the process of globalization, and the location of corporate headquarters influences their economic development. Cities are also important centers of global innovation and technological progress. The aim of the study is to analyze the location of the headquarters of the largest companies in the life sciences industry, which is an example of the innovation industry. It is this sector that includes biotechnology and pharmacy. The Potential Index of Life Sciences (PILS) based of The EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard data was created. Index based on the standardized values of the total city’s R&D value, growth of R&D expenditures for companies, the average value per company, and number of companies in the city.
The largest cities are essential for the development of innovative industries, which also have developed scientific and research functions, thanks to the links with human resources, scientific facilities and greater availability of capital through a wide network of science-industry contacts. It has been studied that the life sciences sector is growing not only in the largest cities of the world such as New York, London, Tokyo and Paris, but also in smaller ones (Basel, Leverkusen, Athlone, Hamilton).
The analysis of the role of cities for the development of innovative industries helps to understand the importance of factors influencing the innovativeness of the industry. In the future, it will be possible to determine the role of cities, including global cities, in the model of development of innovative industries in the world. It allows for a spatial analysis of the phenomenon.
Keywords: city, life science, life science sector company, science-industry.
Positive Leadership: A New Capital in Facilitating Organizational Change
Dr. Muhammad Taufiq Amir
Universitas Bakrie, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
Positive leadership has received attention as an integral approach to organizational change, but few studies link this matter is limited. Positive leadership can produce employees who are full of hope, driven to do their best, are generative, and keen to learn to be a better person. This approach is essential for change initiators as it can help them face the challenges and difficulties of changes and those affected because it can alleviate the resistance to change. This study reviews leadership literature and shows that positive leadership can be a new capital for managing change in organizations. After discussing positivity in growth and the challenges of change, this study proposes how the leadership strategy in creating a positive climate, positive relationships, positive communication, and positive meaning can help managers manage change. Managers can become more persistent and optimistic in facing challenges, open-minded to new ideas. The practical implications and directions of future study of these new propositions are discussed.
Keywords: positive leadership, organizational change, positive psychology.
Sustainable Development of Society: The Interrelation Between Demoethics and Democracy
(1) R.A. Zhanbayev, (2) D.G. Maksimov, (3) M. Tomanov, (4) M. Kozhakanova, (5) S.S. Sagintayeva,
1, 2, 3, 4 National Engineering Academy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2 Department of Public Service and Personnel Management, Udmurt State University, Izhevsk, Russia
5 Karaganda University of the Name of Academician E.A.Buketov, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
The aim of this conceptual analysis is to explore the relationship between “Democracy” and “Demoethics” as tools for transforming sustainable development in society. The study adopts a general methodological approach, specifically a systems approach that incorporates logical synthesis, goal setting, and goal decomposition methods. The results reveal that “Democracy” is a political strategy and form of governance based on the principles of “Demoethics.” This allows the population to confidently raise children, receive fair and quality education, engage in scientific pursuits, and earn a living through honest work. It enables the realization of beneficial ideas guided by reason, which facilitates active participation of society members in decision-making processes. The concept is rooted in the idea that sustainable development can only be achieved by adhering to ethical rationalities that strike a balance between economic, social, and environmental needs. The emergence of the sustainable development paradigm is driven by ethical rationality, which emphasizes not only economic growth but also the fulfillment of basic human needs, reduced socioeconomic inequality, respect for cultural values, and increased environmental responsibility. The study concludes that Demoethic components, such as education and nurturing, contribute to holistic personal development by fostering intellectual growth, knowledge acquisition, and application of scientific principles.
Honest work plays a key role in identifying and embodying values that align with virtuous individuals, rulers, cities, and sustainable development. The integration of education and nurturing, well-developed intellect, knowledge acquisition, scientific principles, and honest work all contribute to sustainable development.
Therefore, the application of the “Demoethics” concept helps shape individuals who possess ethical rationality to make decisions that balance economic, social, and environmental needs and display moral behavior in any life situation, thereby enhancing the quality of life and societal competitiveness.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), sustainable development in society, Demoethics, Democracy, ethical rational decisions, virtuous person.
Ethical Considerations and Dilemmas When Researching With Vulnerable People
Dr. Peter Williams
University College London, UK
Educational and other social research naturally involves serious consideration of ethical principles and practices. Indeed, research involving vulnerable people (children, people with learning disabilities etc.) begins with ethical principles. These include ensuring the research furthers the interests of participants, and that they understand the nature of their participation, and how it informs the research. This paper discusses the issues inherent in undertaking this kind of ‘inclusive’ practice with adults with learning disabilities, and describes two vignettes which posed ethical dilemmas for the researcher. Regarding the first of these, the paper focuses on the issue of ‘informed consent’, where the decision to participate (or not!) is made solely by the potential participant. For this cohort, effective information may require accessible language, meaningful illustrations and possible spoken explanations. The assistance of ‘gatekeepers’ can also be very effective.
The paper illustrates, however, how gatekeepers, often with intimate knowledge of those whom they support, attempt to enhance recruitment by gentle persuasion, rather than accepting the potential participant’s initial decision to decline. This represents the serious dilemma for researchers of whether to reject gatekeeper help, despite their informed judgement of who would enjoy participating. By doing so, someone who may have found the research interesting or fun, is denied the opportunity through their own shyness or natural caution. However, by allowing the gatekeeper to influence someone’s decision, the tenet of accepting unquestioningly the expressed views of potential participants is contrary to ethical principles. The paper discusses this dilemma and its implications for the research process.
Keywords: ethics, research, research principles, vulnerable people, learning disabilities.
Genetic Variability, Association and Diversity Study Among the Sunflower Genotypes at Seedling Stage Based on Different Morpho-Physiological Parameters Under Polyethylene Glycol Induced Stress
University of Poonch, City Rawalakot Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan
Drought stress directly affects growth along with productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to study the genetic variability and diversity among the sunflower genotypes at seedling stage based on different morpho-physiological parameters under Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) induced stress. A total of twenty seven genotypes including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested at germination and seedling stages in Polyethylene Glycol. Correlation and principle component analysis confirmed that germination percentage, root length, proline content, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency and survival percentage are positively correlated with each other hence; these traits were responsible for most of variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-2, line-8, 17559, 17578, Hysun-33, 17555, and 17587 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of inbreed which could be subsequently used in the heterosis breeding.
Keywords: sunflower, morpho-physiological parameters, genotypes.
Social Media Play Regarding Body Image: An Adolescents Battles Regarding Beauty Standards
Lorma Special Science Highschool, Urbiztondo, San Juan, La Union, Philippines
Social Media has been one of the major factors that have been influencing the emotional and mental wellbeing of young adolescents in our current generation. Social Media’s profanity into leading said beauty standards online has left such a major impact within a teenager’s self esteem and confidence as these said ‘perfect body image’ being advertised, isn’t something that is easily attained by everyone. This study aimed to bring light upon the Social Media’s play regarding Body Image and how it affects young adolescents, along with finding: a.) The influences of social media regarding the perspective of adolescents towards their own body image; b.) The challenges that adolescents encountered as they went through the standards of social media in terms of body image; c.) The coping mechanisms of adolescents towards the media’s influence on beauty standards. Furthermore, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the researchers utilized a qualitative type of research wherein we have gathered our data using a semi structured interview with open-ended questions using an online questionnaire that is constructed through Google Forms. After gathering the data, the researchers used Thematization to analyze our collected data information from our participants. The encountered major challenges and influences of adolescents mainly derived from them being easily persuaded to follow the current beauty standards they see online. Moreover, the results imply that social media has left such great influence on adolescents as these unattainable beauty standards they see online made their insecurity fluctuate and lower their self-confidence further. Nonetheless, the respondents managed to overcome these challenges by having coping mechanisms like social media detoxification, reflection, and interaction with family and friends. With that being said, the researchers would like to advocate towards the adolescents to terminate themselves from living up to the ideal world and appreciate what they have and what their body can do.
Keywords: social media, adolescents, beauty standards.
Organizational Behaviour Skills Of Academic Leaders
Dr. Manuel Caingcoy
Bukidnon State University, Philippines
In the past years, academic leaders of 24 Catholic schools in Bukidnon, Philippines had attended limited continuing professional development activities. A few of them had engaged in graduate studies. Yet, their organizations are complex and teachers’ behaviors are unpredictable. Whether they are professionally equipped to lead or not, they are called to manage both and take responsibility for their professional growth. This paper determines the Organizational Behavior (OB) skills of academic leaders so that appropriate training can be provided. The descriptive-correlational method was used and an adapted instrument was administered to 188 teachers and 23 academic leaders. As self-reported, these leaders have demonstrated facilitation, mentoring, and organizational influence skills at the satisfactory level, while their communication, reward and performance appraisal, interpersonal, team management, and employee-attitude management skills were demonstrated a bit lower. Teachers observed that these leaders have demonstrated all OB skills at a moderately satisfactory level. The result indicates that academic leaders need improvement in each area. Pearson r revealed a strong, positive and significant relationship among OB skills. This means that the improvement in one of them may lead to the improvement of the others. It was suggested to include all OB skills in the training design since their demonstration in each of them did not reach the highest level. However, continuing professional development may emphasize areas they had a moderate level of OB skills.
Keywords: continuing professional development, school management.
The Impact of Metacognitive Strategies on Improving IELTS Listening Comprehension
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Listening comprehension has been taken as one of the least explored topics within the broader domain of second language acquisition; therefore, language practitioners have not developed a fine-detailed understanding into the underlying processes and strategies required for successful listening comprehension. To narrow down this lacuna in the literature on listening comprehension the present study set out to explore the effect of negotiated meta-cogitative assessment technique in improving EFL learners’ listening skill. To this aim, 60 intermediate students were randomly divided in two groups; it is worth noting that the participants were studying English as a Foreign Language at Avid foreign languages institute, Iran. The results revealed that negotiated meta-cogitative assessment technique had a significant improve on EFL learners’ listening skill on IELTS test.
Keywords: listening comprehension, IELTS test, metacognitive strategies.
English Language Teaching in Rural Pakistan
Yasir Daud Khan
International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
In the global context, need and importance of English language efforts are being made to improve the quality of acquisition of English with the assumption of teaching. What are the approaches of Pakistani teachers toward English language teaching; does it fulfill the needs as required and facilitating language acquisition? The current study explores this question at the secondary level in the context of Bannu, a remote district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. The researcher randomly interviewed English language teachers and observed the teaching pedagogy and learning methodology of selected secondary schools. The study aims to identify whether the teaching of English is different from the teaching of other subjects or not, in the context of Bannu, such as social studies, history, etc. Further, the study will also analyze the Grammar translation method as a dominant way to teach English and learners who hardly get an opportunity to practice language skills in the classrooms. The reasons behind this approach to the teaching of English are; lack of highly qualified teachers, non-availability of proper training of courses for secondary level English teachers, the memory-driven system of the exam, strengthy classrooms, teachers’ workload, shortage of resources and lack of ongoing support system. It can be suggested as an implication to the study that English teachers should be trained separately focusing on teaching English as a language, unlike other subjects.
Keywords: language acquisition, rural Pakistan, secondary level, teaching pedagogy.
Technology-Mediated Nurturing of Decision-Making Skill among Pakistani Learners at Primary School Level
Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan
Characterized by the impact of globalization and technium surge, knowledge-based economy is in very much in demand globally. Educational institutions are required to produce skilled individuals to cope with the growing needs of rapidly changing trends in all the work fields in the present digital age. Soft-skills such as decision-making, problem-solving, leadership, and management are being considered significant in enhancing human professional potential. Keeping in view the current trends, the present study is focused to propose strategies based on technology-mediated learning in the context of providing guidance to the academicians and practitioners to nurture soft-skills in general and decision-making in particular at the primary school level in the private education sector of Pakistan. In comparison with the conventional learning strategies mainly focused on developing hard-skills, it has been found that the strategies designed to use educational technology to nurture decision-making as a soft-skill among the primary school learners are in line with information processing theory of Newell and Simon (1972) and establish the fact that technology-mediated learning serves as a technological cognitive tool assisting the engagement of learner in the higher order thinking (Jonassen, 1992, as cited in Kotamjani, Razavi, Hussin, 2017) in turn formulating and testing the learning hypotheses in decision-making and problem-solving context. Hence, learning, technology, and cognitive psychology anchored together with advanced academic trends can be explored within our pedagogical framework offering new perspectives in the Pakistani educational discourse.
Keywords: technology, decision making, technology-mediated learning, primary school.
(Re)translation of Latinate Legalese: An Analysis of Urdu Translation of Latin Legal Maxims
Rawalpindi Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
In English language, Latin and Greek terms are used in technical texts for classification of these texts as technical. Latin is still not exhaustive and it makes up part of English law as the Latin sources of law are deeply rooted and normalized in Legal system. This paper studied the Latinate of Legal maxims in English laws and focused on the process of their translation into Urdu. Latin Legal Maxims are one of the strands of Legal discourse in the Legal system and in non western cultures they are retranslated in order to understand their technicality or legality. These Maxims in English and Urdu were studied against the framework of Register Analysis. The three variables given in Halliday’s model of language and discourse (field, tenor and mode) in SL and TL are the same due to the Register specific language used in Legal Documents. Retranslation of these maxims does not hinder their register specificity. These maxims have a narrow semantic range due to their retranslation and Register boundary. In Urdu translation of these maxims, English plays the role of an intermediary language. This paper also explored as to how the Urdu translation of this legal-sounding language reflected the status of it as a ‘standard language’ in its own right. The Translation Strategies employed in translating the Register specific language were also examined in this study. Peter Newmark proposes certain rules for technical translation; he proposes that the technical terms should not be replaced with the descriptive terms in TL. (Newmark, 1988, pp. 158- 160)This paper measured that how far these rules and strategies were applicable to the retranslation of Latin Legal Maxims. Translation of technical texts is so varied and diverse in register that it is not easy to make generalizations upon them. For the purpose of studying their variety and diversity in ST and TT, thirteen different Latin Legal Maxims were chosen with their Urdu Translations.
Keywords: latinate, legalese, legal maxim, register analysis, ST, TT.
Academic Obstruction: Online Learner Procrastination and Coping Strategies
Lorma Colleges, Urbiztondo, San Juan, La Union
In the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, alternative educational processes were executed to adapt to the circumstance, pushing academic institutions to resort to an alternative learning method. In comparison to the conventional methods of teaching, online learning with the help of the Internet adversely affects students and their academic performance. A decline in productivity rates can be attributable to internet addiction and the said decrease in academic productivity is appraised as a semblance of procrastination, pushing learners to take no notice of their academic responsibilities. This research study strived to determine the academic learners’ rationale and grounds for procrastination such as the underlying determinants and coping mechanisms that students apply to overcome it. With the process of a qualitative descriptive design, the researchers looked further and evaluated the students’ strategies in coping with the issue. Thematizing the gathered data, the researchers found out that procrastination comes with virtual learning challenges such as psychological, behavioural, and environmental factors that affect their academic performance. Among the recommendations for enhancement is to develop routines that help students keep themselves on track and to combat the loss of academic focus.
Keywords: e-learning, procrastination, coping strategies
Parents’ Support and Assistance on Modular Learning
Lorma Colleges, Urbiztondo, San Juan, La Union
A variety of roles are being played by parents and guardians in modular learning. This research aims to understand the different support and assistance of parents to their children on their modular learning. This study was conducted in Duplas, Sudipen, La Union and the participants are the parents of grade one students of Duplas Elementary School. The study used a qualitative research design, and this involves a semi-structured questionnaire answered by the parents of grade one. The research study shows that moral support, parental involvement, the myth of multitasking, and giving reward and incentives are the support and assistance that parents give their children. Results also show how parents give their full support and assistance to their children on their modular learning. The most effective ways for parents to support and assist their children are their care and love, motivations, availability, practices, and approach. With the pandemic, parents assist and support their children in the best possible way for them to succeed in their learning.
Keywords: parents’ support and assistance, modular learning, new normal.
Understanding the Degree of Structure In Homeschooling
Dr. Ari Neuman, Dr. Efrat Gill
Western Galilee College, Akko, Israel
One of the most interesting educational trends in the past few decades, and especially after the Covid-19 global epidemic crisis is homeschooling. Homeschooling is defined not by pointing out to what it is, but rather to what it is not – children do not attend school. This is one of the reasons that that a lot of homeschooling research is dedicated to examining what does happen, i.e. what are the common practices of homeschooling. Research on homeschooling attempts to distinguish between different types of homeschooling. One of the most common distinction has to do with the degree of structure – to what extant is the practice of homeschooling preplanned? Research on this topic also indicates that the degree of structure might influence children’s academic achievements.
This research examined the practices of homeschooling through semi-structured interviews. The results indicate that the degree of structure is not identical in different families and therefore suggests different definition for the degree of structure of homeschooling. Possible implications to children’s emotional and behavioral world is discussed, as well as ways of comparing homeschooled and school going children
Keywords: homeschooling, academic achievements, emotions, behaviour.
“A True Ethiopian” – Abiy Ahmed Ali’s usage of Ethiopian Cultural Keywords
Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland
In 2015 nobody expected that a young, more widely unknown member of a Ethiopian People\’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) party will three years later be chosen as fourth prime minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
One of the factors that helped Abiy Ahmed Ali gain power in Ethiopia in 2018 and maintain popularity despite the war in Tigray in 2020 was his cleverness in using terms that are deeply rooted in Ethiopian culture. By using them or – on some occasions – acting according to them the Prime Minister of Ethiopia refers to the times of Ethiopian Empire – a period of Ethiopian history that is now being mythologized, even by those groups who were discriminated by the imperial regime.
In the presentations four Ethiopian terms (f.e. yilunta, medemir, sim ina werq, ach’berbari) will be discussed, by using which Abiy creates himself as a model Ethiopian man and leader.
Keywords: Abiy Ahmed Ali, Ethiopian culture, yilunta, medemir, sim ina werq, ach’berbari.
Email Marketing for Freelance Translators and Interpreters
Freelanguage LDA, Portugal
Translations and language services are not everyday products. Thus, the chances of getting in touch with clients right on time when they are in search of vendors working with corresponding languages and specialising in certain subject fields is rather low.
That makes email marketing one of the most powerful tools for independent language professionals as it allows not only to deliver offers to customers, but it also lets them save proposals to use them in the future.
However, marketing without a strategy cannot be effective. For freelance linguists, the principal goal of such strategy is to stay in contact with existing and potential clients. The tactics of gentle reminders presented in the book “Effective Email Marketing for Freelance Linguists” is a way how freelancers can tell their story to clients in a real-time mode, significantly increasing the chances to transform their contacts into long-term customers.
At the presentation, the attendees can learn about the best practices for all 7 stages of email marketing from identification of the target groups of potential customers up to tracking replies and sending gentle reminders. All suggested approaches can be used by every freelance translator and interpreter right away.
Keywords: marketing, translators, interpreters, translations, email, customers.
Investigating #METOO: A Content Analysis of the Perception of Social Media Users in Pakistan Towards Me Too Movement
Department of Media Studies, Bahria University Karachi, Pakistant
The purpose of this research is to apperceive Pakistani men and women’s perception on the “me too” movement that raged all around and made its way to Pakistan. This study carries out a content analysis of a series of tweets that includes women and men and their perception on me too movement, how they believe and perceived this movement has brought change in Pakistani society and more over in the lives and minds of Pakistani women. Has it encouraged women to speak up against harassment? And what trouble or hurdles it caused or causes for a woman to speak up against their predators or harassers? The findings of the study provide a deeper look into the matter and see how women have come forward in support of this movement, expressing their thoughts and encouraging women with such stories to come forward and share their hearts out. Not only women but men also came forward in support of the movement, with a minority standing against it, that too for variable reasons.
Keywords: women, violence, harassment, protection, Pakistani women, content analysis.
Teaching a Dead Language in Foreign Language(s)
Dr. Kamil Kuraszkiewicz
University of Warsaw, Faculty of Oriental Studies, Warsaw, Poland
Teaching a dead language has its peculiarities, as it usually involves a passive knowledge only and with respect only to already existing texts, but also because of the impossibility to interact with native speakers. Teaching process conducted in another language which is not native either for a teacher or for students poses an additional challenge which is even more pronounced when a fourth language gets involved. The present paper will contain observations made during a course of ancient Egyptian (a dead Afro-Asiatic language) organised at the University of Warsaw (where teaching language is Polish – an Indo-European, Slavic language) for Turkish students (speaking – naturally – a Turkic language) but conducted in English (Indo-European, Germanic). Additionally, the teacher is learning Turkish and used it in communication with the students as well as in teaching; this approach turned out to facilitate understanding of structures of the Egyptian language, and referring to structures of all four languages in question gave an interesting comparative perspective.
Keywords: language teaching, ancient languages, Egyptian, English, Turkish.